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MonkeypoxMonkeypox is a contagious disease caused by infection with the monkeypox virus. The monkeypox virus is an Orthopoxvirus and one of four that can infect humans; variola (which causes smallpox), vaccinia (used in the smallpox and monkeypox vaccine), and cowpox. It is a zoonotic disease, which means it can spread from animals to humans. It can also spread from person-to-person principally through direct contact with rash, scabs, body fluid, and to a lesser extent, respiratory secretions or by touching items previously in contact with the rash or body fluids. Anyone can monkeypox and the CDC is providing information to a wide audience about symptoms and the behaviors that can lead to the spread of monkeypox.  However, some communities are impacted more than others. To learn more, read the information provided by the CDC:

The first human case of monkeypox was recorded in 1970. It is endemic in several Central and West African countries. Prior to the 2022 outbreak, nearly all monkeypox cases in people outside of Africa were linked to international travel to countries where the disease commonly occurs, or through imported animals. The current outbreak outside of Africa involves a different strain of Monkeypox virus that causes a less severe illness.

Patients with monkeypox may experience fever, swollen lymph nodes, malaise, headache and muscle aches followed by onset of a rash that develops into pustular skin lesions. Not everyone with monkeypox develops all of the symptoms. A person is considered infectious from the onset of illness until all lesions have crusted over and those scabs have separated revealing a layer of healthy skin.

In 2019, FDA licensed JYNNEOS, a replication-deficient Modified Vaccinia Ankara (MVA) vaccine, for prevention of smallpox or monkeypox disease in adults aged ≥18 years determined to be at high risk for infection with these viruses. About 97% of vaccinated individuals are protected about 2 weeks after administration of two doses of JYNNEOS administered one month apart or after formation of the pustule at the vaccination site with ACAM2000.

Please find monkeypox clinical resources geared toward healthcare personnel in the Department of Defense (DOD). Focus on this page is on vaccines used for pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis. However, links to diagnostic and treatment resources are also provided. Note that information is subject to frequently change as more information becomes available.

Information Paper Date
Monkeypox Disease and Monkeypox Vaccine July 21, 2022
Vaccine Information Statement Date
Monkeypox Vaccine (JYNNEOS™): What You Need to Know
June 2, 2022
Storage and Handling Guidance Date
JYNNEOS (monkeypox) Vaccine Storage and Handling letter
June 14, 2022
Manufacturer Package Insert Date
JYNNEOS June 16, 2021
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations Date
Use of JYNNEOS (Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine, Live, Nonreplicating) for Preexposure Vaccination of Persons at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2022
June 3, 2022
Clinical Resources Date

DHA Clinical Guidance for Monkeypox Testing, Public Health Reporting and Treatment: To access this document:

  • Visit the DHA Launchpad (Sharepoint) home page. (CAC authentication required)
  • Click on “Resources” on the pop-up menu bar on the right-hand side.
  • Then, click on “DOD Vaccine Resource Center” under “Resources.”
  • Click on “Monkeypox Vaccine Information” under Libraries on the left-hand side.
July 22, 2022

For Monkeypox Testing, Use Lesion Swab Samples to Avoid False Results: FDA Safety Communication

July 15, 2022

CDC: Information For Healthcare Professionals 

June 23, 2022

CDC: Clinician FAQs 

July 5, 2022

CDC: Information For Laboratory Personnel

June 24, 2022

CDC: Preparation and Collection of Specimens 

June 29, 2022
CDC: JYNNEOS Smallpox and Monkeypox Vaccine Storage and Handling Summary Aug. 2, 2022
Last Updated: August 10, 2022

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