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Mpox

MonkeypoxMpox is a contagious disease caused by infection with the mpox virus. The mpox virus is an Orthopoxvirus and one of four that can infect humans; variola (which causes smallpox), vaccinia (used in the smallpox and mpox vaccine), and cowpox. It is a zoonotic disease, which means it can spread from animals to humans. It can also spread from person-to-person principally through direct contact with rash, scabs, body fluid, and to a lesser extent, respiratory secretions or by touching items previously in contact with the rash or body fluids. Anyone can be infected by mpox, and the CDC is providing information to a wide audience about symptoms and the behaviors that can lead to the spread of mpox. However, some communities are impacted more than others. To learn more, read the information provided by the CDC.

The first human case of mpox was recorded in 1970. It is endemic in several Central and West African countries. Prior to the 2022 outbreak, nearly all mpox cases in people outside of Africa were linked to international travel to countries where the disease commonly occurs, or through imported animals. The current outbreak outside of Africa involves a different strain of mpox virus that causes a less severe illness.

Patients with mpox may experience fever, swollen lymph nodes, malaise, headache and muscle aches followed by onset of a rash that develops into pustular skin lesions. Not everyone with mpox develops all of the symptoms. A person is considered infectious from the onset of illness until all lesions have crusted over and those scabs have separated revealing a layer of healthy skin.

In 2019, FDA licensed JYNNEOS, a replication-deficient Modified Vaccinia Ankara vaccine, for prevention of smallpox or mpox disease in adults aged ≥18 years determined to be at high risk for infection with these viruses. About 97% of vaccinated individuals are protected about 2 weeks after administration of two doses of JYNNEOS administered one month apart or after formation of the pustule at the vaccination site with ACAM2000.

Please find mpox clinical resources geared toward health care personnel in the Department of Defense. Focus on this page is on vaccines used for pre-exposure or post-exposure prophylaxis. However, links to diagnostic and treatment resources are also provided. Note that information is subject to frequently change as more information becomes available.

Information Paper Date
Mpox Disease and Mpox Vaccine July 21, 2022
Vaccine Administration Date

MMQC-22-1426: JYNNEOS Vaccine Guidance for Alternative Regimen Route-Dose Administration for Mpox Prevention. To access this document:

Aug. 15, 2022

MMQC-22-1501: Jynneos Vaccine Ordering Guidance for Mpox post-exposure prophylaxis / UPDATE. To access this document:

Oct. 4, 2022

FDA: Fact Sheet for Recipients and Caregivers About JYNNEOS to Prevent Mpox Disease
Note: This vaccine is authorized for emergency use in people younger than 18 to be administered subcutaneously, and to be administered intradermally to individuals 18 and older determined to be at high risk for mpox infection.

Aug. 9, 2022

FDA: Fact Sheet for Health Care Providers About JYNNEOS to Prevent Mpox Disease
Note: This vaccine is authorized for emergency use in people younger than 18 to be administered subcutaneously, and to be administered intradermally to individuals 18 and older determined to be at high risk for mpox infection.

Aug. 16, 2022
Storage and Handling Date
Clarification on JYNNEOS storage and handling requirements (Manufacturer letter clarifying that JYNNEOS may be refrigerated for up to 8 weeks after initial thaw. This differs from the package insert.)
June 14, 2022

CDC: JYNNEOS Smallpox and Mpox Vaccine Preparation and Administration Summary

Sept. 27, 2023
Vaccine Information Statement Date
Smallpox/Mpox Vaccine (JYNNEOS™): What You Need to Know
Nov. 14, 2022
Manufacturer Package Insert Date
JYNNEOS
Note: This vaccine is licensed for subcutaneous administration in individuals 18 and older.
Sept. 29, 2023
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations Date
Use of JYNNEOS (Smallpox and Mpox Vaccine, Live, Nonreplicating) for Preexposure Vaccination of Persons at Risk for Occupational Exposure to Orthopoxviruses: Recommendations of the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices — United States, 2022
June 3, 2022
Clinical Resources Date

DHA Clinical Guidance for Mpox Public Health Emergency 

Aug. 29, 2022

For Mpox Testing, Use Lesion Swab Samples to Avoid False Results: FDA Safety Communication

July 15, 2022

CDC: Information For Health Care Professionals 

Sept. 1, 2023

CDC: Information For Laboratory Personnel

March 7, 2023

CDC: Preparation and Collection of Specimens 

Sept. 20, 2022
Last Updated: January 30, 2024
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