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DoD Leverages GEIS Respiratory Surveillance to Respond to COVID-19

Three men in a pig pen taking samples Staff from the U.S. Navy Medical Research Unit 6, better known as NAMRU-6, perform sampling on swine and swine workers in Peru. This testing helps monitor the transmission of potential respiratory pathogens.

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Armed Forces Health Surveillance Division | Coronavirus

As the COVID-19 pandemic emerged and spread around the world, the Department of Defense funded health surveillance activities to rapidly support military forces living and working in the U.S. and abroad. Armed Forces Health Surveillance Branch’s Global Emerging Infection Surveillance (GEIS) program manages a global laboratory network and uses analytical processes to detect emergent diseases and track respiratory illnesses such as influenza.

This GEIS-supported respiratory network, comprised of partnerships with Army, Navy, and Air Force public health and medical research laboratories, includes hundreds of surveillance sites in over 30 countries.

These surveillance locations are selected based on inputs from the regional laboratories and in coordination with the Geographic Combatant Commands. GEIS also funds and maintains surveillance of DoD Service members through the DoD Global Respiratory Pathogen Surveillance Program, which tests samples from over 100 sentinel site locations and is operated by the U.S. Air Force School of Aerospace Medicine. In addition, GEIS supports recruit and ship-board surveillance activities operated by Naval Health Research Center. Respiratory pathogens, bacteria and viruses that can cause diseases, present a unique challenge for recruit and ship-board populations due to their close living conditions and activities that can enable the rapid spread of infections and significantly impact force readiness.

“GEIS-funded surveillance provides the foundation for rapid testing so that a better understanding of the incidence and spread of SARS-CoV-2 virus can be established,” said U.S. Public Health Service Cmdr. (Dr.) Mark Scheckelhoff, lead for the GEIS Respiratory Infections portfolio. “Through the long-term investments to build and maintain this network of laboratory locations, we have an extensive analytical capability. GEIS has enabled our partners to respond to the ongoing pandemic and detect the presence of SARS-CoV-2 around the world.”

Through GEIS support, laboratory partners conduct many investigations including the sampling of animal markets and farm locations in four countries. These efforts include sampling of avian and swine species, as well as the workers at a particular location. Samples are then analyzed for novel influenza or other emerging pathogens with pandemic potential. 

Each laboratory within the network is able to perform highly sensitive and specific testing on respiratory samples and together process approximately 30,000 samples per year. These samples are collected in various clinics and military medical treatment facilities from individuals presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) symptoms.

“Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of samples analyzed for the 2019-2020 season remains to be determined, but over 45,000 analytical tests on ILI samples have already been performed,” stated Army Lt. Col. (Dr.) Kevin Taylor, GEIS focus area chief.

GEIS coordinates closely with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other partners to ensure the data is shared. They also present annual influenza data from DoD populations to the Food and Drug Administration, to help determine the composition of the seasonal influenza vaccine for the United States.

“GEIS coordinates information sharing activities related to the development of countermeasures, vaccines, and other interventions to support the ongoing pandemic and place the network in a good position to address future threats,” said Navy Capt. Guillermo Pimentel.

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Erectile Dysfunction among Male Active Component Service members

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Erectile dysfunction (ED) is defined as the persistent inability to achieve and sustain an erection that is adequate for sexual intercourse. ED can result from a problem with any of the above: •	Hormones •	Emotions •	Nerves •	Muscles •	Blood vessels These factors are required for an erection include. Picture is a brain (left) and a male figure (right) showing the heart and main arteries of the body. The top three most common ED diagnoses are: 1.	Psychosexual dysfunction 2.	Hypoactive sexual desire disorder 3.	Male orgasmic disorder Image shows a couple outside together during sunset. House displays in background. Causes of ED (Shows cut out of male body highlighting areas of the body where causes happen) •	Unrealistic sexual expectations •	Depression/ Anxiety/ Stress or other mental health issues •	High blood pressure •	Diabetes •	Obesity •	Injuries that affect the pelvic area or spinal cord •	Low testosterone •	Aging, Substance Abuse Demographics: •	Incidence rate of erectile dysfunction are higher among black, non-Hispanic servicemen when compared to other race/ethnicity groups. •	Black non-Hispanic service members have higher incidence rates of several conditions known to be risk factors for erectile dysfunction, including hypertension, obesity and diabetes. •	Separated, divorced and widowed servicemen had a higher incidence rate of ED than servicemen never married. •	Servicemen never deployed had the highest crude incidence rate of erectile dysfunction. Get the facts •	Erectile dysfunction is the most common sexual complaint reported by men to healthcare providers •	Among male service members nearly half of erectile dysfunction cases related predominantly or exclusively to psychological factors. •	Incidence rates of psychogenic erectile dysfunction are greater than organic erectile dysfunction for service members. •	Organic erectile dysfunction can result from physical factors such as obesity, smoking, diabetes, cardiovascular disease or medication use. •	Highest incidence rates were observed in those aged 60 years or older. •	Those 40 years or older are most commonly diagnosed with erectile dysfunction. Effective against erectile dysfunction •	Regular exercise  ( Shows soldier running) •	Psychological counseling (Shows two soldiers engaging in mental health counseling. They are seating on a couch).  •	Quit smoking ( shows lit cigarette)  •	Stop substance abuse ( Shows to shot glasses filled with alcohol) •	Nutritional supplements ( Shows open pill bottle of supplements) •	Surgical treatment ( Shows surgical instruments) Talk to your partner Although Erectile Dysfunction (ED) is a difficult issue for sex partners to discuss, talking openly can often be the best way to resolve stress and discover underlying causes. If you are experiencing erectile dysfunction, explore treatment options with your doctor. Learn more about ED by reading ‘Erectile Dysfunction Among Male Active Component Service Members, U.S. Armed Forces, 2004 – 2013.’ Medical Surveillance Monthly Report (MSMR) Vol. 21 No. 9 – September 2014 at www.Health.mil/MSMRArchives. Follow us on Twitter at AFHSBPAGE. #MensHealth

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4/4/2017
Heat illness refers to a spectrum of disorders that occur when the body is unable to dissipate heat absorbed from the external environment and the heat generated by internal metabolic processes. As heat illness progresses, failure of one or more body systems can occur. This report summarizes reportable medical events of heat illnesses, heat-related hospitalizations and ambulatory visits among minority active component members (Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, and Asian/Pacific Islanders) during 2016. In 2016, incidence rates of heat stroke were highest among Asian/ Pacific Islanders than any other ethnicity. Crude incidence rate of “other heat illnesses” was higher among females than males.  Heat Incidence cases: •	Black, non-Hispanic heat illness incidence cases – 64 for heatstroke and 389 for other heat illnesses •	Hispanic heat illness incidence cases—  63 for heatstroke and 320 for other heat illnesses •	Asian/ Pacific Islander heat illness incidence cases – 32 for heatstroke and for  117 other heat illnesses Incidence rates: •	Black, non-Hispanic incidence rates – 0.30 for heatstroke and 1.84 for other heat illnesses •	Hispanic incidence rates – 0.33 for heatstroke and 1.67 for other heat illnesses •	Asian/Pacific Islander – 0.62 for heatstroke and 2.26 for other heat illnesses Of all military members, the youngest and most inexperienced marines and soldiers – particularly those training at installations in the south eastern U.S. – are at highest risk of heat illnesses including heat stroke, exertional hyponatremia, and exertional rhabdomyolysis. Learn more at www.Health.mil/MSMR

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