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Military Health System

Typhoid fever cases in the U.S. military.

Publication Status: Published

Sponsoring Organization: Navy

Sponsoring Office: Naval Medical Research Center

Congressionally Mandated: No

Funding Source: Navy

Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015

Principle Investigator Status: Government

Primary DoD Data Source: Defense Medical Surveillance System

Secondary DoD Data Source:


Salmonella enterica, serovar Typhi (S. Typhi), a causative agent of enteric fever (typhoid fever), predominately affects populations in developing regions with poor access to clean food and water. In addition, travelers to these regions are at risk of exposure.

We report the epidemiological characteristics of S. Typhi cases among active duty United States military personnel from 1998 to 2011 using data obtained from the Defense Medical Surveillance System. Cases were identified based on International Classification for Disease Ninth Edition - Clinical Modification codes.

We identified a total of 205 cases S. Typhi for an incidence of 1.09 per 100,000 person-years. Cases were on average 31.7 years old, predominately married (n = 129, 62.9 %), Caucasian (n = 142, 69.3 %), male (n = 176, 85.9 %), and had a high school education (n = 101, 49.3 %). Of the identified cases, 122 had received a Typhoid vaccination within 4 years of diagnosis.

This study provides an overview of enteric fever in the United States military. The incidence was similar to the general U.S. population except for increased incidence from 1998 to 2000, perhaps attributable to operational deployments in that period. Given that vaccination is an effective primary prevention measure against typhoid fever, active monitoring of pre-deployment vaccine history is warranted.


Sorrell T, Selig DJ, Riddle MS, Porter CK. Typhoid fever cases in the U.S. military. BMC Infect Dis. 2015 Oct 14;15:424.

Last Updated: February 21, 2019
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