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Results of a pilot screening programme for genital and extragenital gonococcal and chlamydial infections in a military population following the repeal of 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'.

Study

Abstract

No abstract available

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: June 01, 2015
  • Citation: Lee T, Ganesan A. Results of a pilot screening programme for genital and extragenital gonococcal and chlamydial infections in a military population following the repeal of 'Don't Ask, Don't Tell'. Sex Transm Infect. 2015 Jun;91(4):233.

Respiratory Infections in the U.S. Military: Recent Experience and Control.

Study

Abstract

This comprehensive review outlines the impact of military-relevant respiratory infections, with special attention to recruit training environments, influenza pandemics in 1918 to 1919 and 2009 to 2010, and peacetime operations and conflicts in the past 25 years. Outbreaks and epidemiologic investigations of viral and bacterial infections among high-risk groups are presented, including (i) experience by recruits at training centers, (ii) impact on advanced trainees in special settings, (iii) morbidity sustained by shipboard personnel at sea, and (iv) experience of deployed personnel. Utilizing a pathogen-by-pathogen approach, we examine (i) epidemiology, (ii) impact in terms of morbidity and operational readiness, (iii) clinical presentation and outbreak potential, (iv) diagnostic modalities, (v) treatment approaches, and (vi) vaccine and other control measures. We also outline military-specific initiatives in (i) surveillance, (ii) vaccine development and policy, (iii) novel influenza and coronavirus diagnostic test development and surveillance methods, (iv) influenza virus transmission and severity prediction modeling efforts, and (v) evaluation and implementation of nonvaccine, nonpharmacologic interventions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: July 01, 2015
  • Citation: Sanchez JL, Cooper MJ, Myers CA, Cummings JF, Vest KG, Russell KL, Sanchez JL, Hiser MJ, Gaydos CA. Respiratory Infections in the U.S. Military: Recent Experience and Control. Clin Microbiol Rev. 2015 Jul;28(3):743-800.

Reproductive Health of Active Duty Women in Medically Austere Environments

Study

Abstract

One in seven of the approximately 2.2 million Department of Defense active duty military personnel are women. Among active duty servicewomen, about 40% are under 26 years old, and almost half are young, lower ranking enlisted personnel. This article will include a review of the literature on military women's health topics such including contraception access, pregnancy, and pregnancy outcomes after environmental exposures. In these early adult years, contraception use may not be consistent, leading to higher rates of unintended pregnancy that is similar to their civilian counterparts, but it may affect troop readiness. Women who become pregnant after deployment must be evacuated from theater. Complications in pregnancy that require immediate intervention, such as ectopic pregnancy, may be more difficult to diagnose and manage if far away from comprehensive medical services. Environmental exposures may affect the pregnancy outcome, or may produce delayed responses for future childbearing. Women face other gynecologic choices including menstrual suppression while deployed. Many of these issues have not been fully studied, sample sizes are small or methodological flaws exist in the analysis limiting conclusions that can be drawn. Further research with greater rigor, larger sample sizes, and careful design are needed to address many of these questions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2016
  • Citation: Krulewitch CJ. Reproductive Health of Active Duty Women in Medically Austere Environments. Mil Med. 2016 Jan;181(1 Suppl):63-9.

Relation of repeated low-level blast exposure with symptomology similar to concussion.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To investigate anecdotal reports suggesting that repeated exposure to low-level explosive blast has myriad health impacts, including an array of neurological effects. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 184 anonymous survey respondents from military and nonmilitary law enforcement populations (135 exposed to occupational blast and 49 controls). DESIGN: Survey of self-reported history of occupational exposure to repeated low-level blast (breaching blast) and symptomology similar to concussion. RESULTS: Findings suggest that number and severity of symptoms increase with history of chronic blast exposure (F = 18.26, P < .001) and that symptoms can interfere with daily activity (t = 2.60, P = .010). CONCLUSION: Given the prevalence of repeated exposure to blast among some military and civilian law enforcement occupations, the results of this survey study support a role for blast surveillance programs as well as continued research on health impacts of low-level repeated blast exposure.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Carr W, Polejaeva E, Grome A, Crandall B, LaValle C, Eonta SE, Young LA. Relation of repeated low-level blast exposure with symptomology similar to concussion. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2015 Jan-Feb;30(1):47-55.

Rates of acute respiratory illnesses of infectious and allergic etiologies after permanent changes of duty assignments, active component, U.S. Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, January 2005-September 2015.

Study

Abstract

Throughout history, acute respiratory illnesses (ARIs) have disproportionately affected military populations, particularly those in recruit training camps. A similar dynamic can affect non-trainee military settings. When military members are reassigned, they often develop ARIs within the first weeks of their arrivals at their new assignments. To assess the natures and magnitudes of the risks associated with new assignments, this analysis compared the experiences of service members within their first full calendar months at new assignments and during the same months at the same locations 1 year later. The results do not support the hypothesis that ARIs of infectious etiologies consistently occur more frequently soon after arriving at new assignments compared to 1 year later at the same locations. In contrast, during two-thirds of the 117 months considered here, rates of ARIs of presumed allergic etiologies (e.g., allergic rhinitis, asthma) were higher during the first months of new assignments compared to 1 year later. The limitations of the study methodology as well as the possible implications of the findings are discussed.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2015
  • Citation: Brundage JF, et. al.,Rates of acute respiratory illnesses of infectious and allergic etiologies after permanent changes of duty assignments, active component, U.S. Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, January 2005-September 2015. MSMR. 2015 Nov;22(11):2-7

Race/ethnicity and HAART initiation in a military HIV infected cohort.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prior studies have suggested that HAART initiation may vary by race/ethnicity. Utilizing the U.S. military healthcare system, which minimizes confounding from healthcare access, we analyzed whether timing of HAART initiation and the appropriate initiation of primary prophylaxis among those at high risk for pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) varies by race/ethnicity. METHODS: Participants in the U.S. Military HIV Natural History Study from 1998-2009 who had not initiated HAART before 1998 and who, based on DHHS guidelines, had a definite indication for HAART (CD4 <200, AIDS event or severe symptoms; Group A), an indication to consider HAART (including CD4 <350; Group B) or electively started HAART (CD4 >350; Group C) were analyzed for factors associated with HAART initiation. In a secondary analysis, participants were also evaluated for factors associated with starting primary PCP prophylaxis within four months of a CD4 count <200 cells/mm3. Multiple logistic regression was used to compare those who started vs. delayed therapy; comparisons were expressed as odds ratios (OR). RESULTS: 1262 participants were evaluated in the analysis of HAART initiation (A = 208, B = 637, C = 479 [62 participants were evaluated in both Groups A and B]; 94% male, 46% African American, 40% Caucasian). Race/ethnicity was not associated with HAART initiation in Groups A or B. In Group C, African American race/ethnicity was associated with lower odds of initiating HAART (OR 0.49, p = 0.04). Race and ethnicity were also not associated with the initiation of primary PCP prophylaxis among the 408 participants who were at risk. CONCLUSIONS: No disparities in the initiation of HAART or primary PCP prophylaxis according to race/ethnicity were seen among those with an indication for therapy. Among those electively initiating HAART at the highest CD4 cell counts, African American race/ethnicity was associated with decreased odds of starting. This suggests that free healthcare can potentially overcome some of the observed disparities in HIV care, but that unmeasured factors may contribute to differences in elective care decisions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2014
  • Citation: Johnson EN, Roediger MP, Landrum ML, Crum-Cianflone NF, Weintrob AC, Ganesan A, et. al. Race/ethnicity and HAART initiation in a military HIV infected cohort. AIDS Res Ther. 2014 Jan 24;11(1):10.

Race and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in a military population.

Study

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to determine if race is associated with vaginal birth after cesarean delivery (VBAC) success in a military population. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted examining women with a history of at least one prior cesarean delivery who delivered at a single tertiary care military treatment facility. Data were collected pertaining to maternal demographics, medical and obstetric history, antepartum complications, intrapartum course, delivery mode, and maternal outcomes. Univariable and multivariable analyses were used to determine the association of race and VBAC success. RESULTS: Four hundred seventy-six charts were reviewed from 2004 to 2011. African American women were more likely to require a cesarean delivery (P<.05) even after adjusting for potentially confounding factors. There was no difference in maternal morbidity between the racial groups. CONCLUSIONS: In a health care system with equal access, racial disparities remain. The effect of social factors that may influence such a disparity are thought to be attenuated in a military population. However, in our study, African American women were still significantly more likely to fail a VBAC attempt as compared with non-African American women. Race had no influence on morbidity, although this study was not powered to examine morbidity as a primary outcome.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Navy
  • Sponsoring Office: Naval Medical Center San Diego
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: May 01, 2014
  • Citation: Brankin C, Stratton S, Piszczek C, You W. Race and vaginal birth after cesarean delivery in a military population. Obstet Gynecol. 2014 May;123 Suppl 1:139S.

PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample.

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Recent neuroimaging work suggests that increased amygdala responses to emotional stimuli and dysfunction within regions mediating top down attentional control (dorsomedial frontal, lateral frontal and parietal cortices) may be associated with the emergence of anxiety disorders, including posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). This report examines amygdala responsiveness to emotional stimuli and the recruitment of top down attention systems as a function of task demands in a population of U.S. military service members who had recently returned from combat deployment in Afghanistan/Iraq. Given current interest in dimensional aspects of pathophysiology, it is worthwhile examining patients who, while not meeting full PTSD criteria, show clinically significant functional impairment. METHODS: Fifty-seven participants with sub-threshold levels of PTSD symptoms completed the affective Stroop task while undergoing fMRI. Participants with PTSD or depression at baseline were excluded. RESULTS: Greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with increased amygdala activation to emotional, particularly positive, stimuli relative to neutral stimuli. Furthermore, greater PTSD symptom severity was associated with increased superior/middle frontal cortex response during task conditions relative to passive viewing conditions. In addition, greater PTSD symptom severity scores were associated with: (i) increased activation in the dorsolateral prefrontal, lateral frontal, inferior parietal cortices and dorsomedial frontal cortex/dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dmFC/dACC) in response to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; and (ii) increased functional connectivity during emotional trials, particularly positive trials, relative to neutral trials between the right amygdala and dmFC/dACC, left caudate/anterior insula cortex, right lentiform nucleus/caudate, bilateral inferior parietal cortex and left middle temporal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that these data may reflect two phenomena associated with increased PTSD symptomatology in combat-exposed, but PTSD negative, armed services members. First, these data indicate increased emotional responsiveness by: (i) the positive relationship between PTSD symptom severity and amygdala responsiveness to emotional relative to neutral stimuli; (ii) greater BOLD response as a function of PTSD symptom severity in regions implicated in emotion (striatum) and representation (occipital and temporal cortices) during emotional relative to neutral conditions; and (iii) increased connectivity between the amygdala and regions implicated in emotion (insula/caudate) and representation (middle temporal cortex) as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral trials. Second, these data indicate a greater need for the recruitment of regions implicated in top down attention as indicated by (i) greater BOLD response in superior/middle frontal gyrus as a function of PTSD symptom severity in task relative to view conditions; (ii) greater BOLD response in dmFC/dACC, lateral frontal and inferior parietal cortices as a function of PTSD symptom severity in emotional relative to neutral conditions and (iii) greater functional connectivity between the amygdala and inferior parietal cortex as a function of PTSD symptom severity during emotional relative to neutral conditions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Agency, office or organization under authority of the Sec Def (not affiliated to Army, Navy, or Air Force)
  • Release Date/Publication: November 01, 2014
  • Citation: White SF, Costanzo ME, Blair JR, Roy MJ. PTSD symptom severity is associated with increased recruitment of top-down attentional control in a trauma-exposed sample. Neuroimage Clin. 2014 Nov 18;7:19-27.

Providing care to military personnel and their families: how we can all contribute.

Study

Abstract

Providing medical care to members of the military and their families remains a societal duty carried out not only by military physicians but also, and in large part, by civilian providers. As many military families are geographically dispersed, it is probable that all physicians at some point in their training or careers will care for this unique patient population. Understanding the military culture can help physicians provide the best care possible to our military families, and inclusion of military cultural competency curricula in all medical schools is a first step in advancing this understanding. The authors review the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that all health professionals should acquire to be able to care for those who serve and offer recommendations for developing these among all students and trainees.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: September 01, 2014
  • Citation: Gleeson TD, Hemmer PA. Providing care to military personnel and their families: how we can all contribute. Acad Med. 2014 Sep;89(9):1201-3.

Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements.

Study

Abstract

It is legal to market most naturally occurring substances as dietary supplements in the USA without manufacturers demonstrating they are safe or effective, and an endless variety of ingredients, from esoteric botanicals to unapproved pharmaceuticals, can be found in dietary supplements. Use of certain supplements can pose a risk, but since a robust reporting system does not exist in the USA it is difficult to know which are problematic and the number of adverse events (AE) resulting from their use. Certain populations, including military personnel, are more likely to use dietary supplements than the general population. Approximately 70% of military personnel take dietary supplements while about 50% of civilians do. Service members prefer supplements purported to enhance physical performance such as supposedly natural stimulants, protein and amino acids, and combination products. Since some of these may be problematic, Service members are probably at higher risk of injury than the general population. Ten percent of military populations appear to be taking potentially risky supplements, and the US Department of Defense (DoD) has taken various measures to protect uniformed personnel including education, policy changes, and restricting sales. Actions taken include launching Operation Supplement Safety (OPSS), introducing a High Risk Supplement list, educating health care professionals on reporting AE that might be associated with dietary supplements, recommending policy for reporting AE, and developing an online AE reporting system. OPSS is a DoD-wide effort to educate service members, leaders, health care providers, military families, and retirees on how to safely select supplements

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: October 01, 2015
  • Citation: Deuster PA, Lieberman HR. Protecting military personnel from high risk dietary supplements. Drug Test Anal. 2015 Oct 16.

Profile Analysis of the Neurobehavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms Following Combat-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury: Identification of Subtypes.

Study

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To explore the taxonomy of combat-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) based on symptom patterns. PARTICIPANTS: Up to 1341 military personnel who experienced a combat-related mTBI within 2 years of evaluation. MEASURES: Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory and PTSD Checklist-Civilian Version (PCL-C). RESULTS: Cluster analysis revealed the following 4 subtypes: primarily psychiatric (posttraumatic stress disorder) group, a cognitive group, a mixed symptom group, and a good recovery group. The posttraumatic stress disorder cluster (21.9% of the sample) reported symptoms related to hyperarousal and dissociation/depression with few complaints related to cognition or headaches. The cognitive group (21.5% of the sample) had primarily cognitive and headache complaints with few mood symptoms. The mixed profile cluster included 18.6% of the sample and was characterized by a combination of mood complaints (hyperarousal and dissociation/depression), cognitive complaints, and headaches. The largest cluster (37.8% of the sample) had an overall low symptom profile and was labeled the "good recovery" group. CONCLUSIONS: The results support a unique taxonomy for combat-related mTBI. The clinical differences among these subtypes indicate a need for unique treatment resources and programs.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center/Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2016
  • Citation: Bailie JM, Kennedy JE, French LM, Marshall K, Prokhore, et.al., Profile Analysis of the Neurobehavioral and Psychiatric Symptoms Following Combat-Related Mild Traumatic Brain Injury. J Head Trauma Rehabil. 2016 Jan-Feb;31(1):2-12.

Profile analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory following military-related traumatic brain injury.

Study

Abstract

Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) profiles were examined in 160 U.S. service members (SMs) following mild-severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). Participants who sustained a mild TBI had significantly higher PAI scores than those with moderate-severe TBI on eight of the nine clinical scales examined. A two-step cluster analysis identified four PAI profiles, heuristically labeled "High Distress", "Moderate Distress", "Somatic Distress," and "No Distress". Postconcussive and posttraumatic stress symptom severity was highest for the High Distress group, followed by the Somatic and Moderate Distress groups, and the No Distress group. Profile groups differed in age, ethnicity, rank, and TBI severity. Findings indicate that meaningful patterns of behavioral and personality characteristics can be detected in active duty military SMs following TBI, which may prove useful in selecting the most efficacious rehabilitation strategies.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: May 01, 2015
  • Citation: Kennedy JE, Cooper DB, Reid MW, Tate DF, Lange RT. Profile analyses of the Personality Assessment Inventory following military-related traumatic brain injury. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2015 May;30(3):236-47.

Prevalence of mental health conditions after military blast exposure, their co-occurrence, and their relation to mild traumatic brain injury.

Study

Abstract

PRIMARY OBJECTIVES: To measure common psychiatric conditions after military deployment with blast exposure and test relationships to post-concussion syndrome (PCS) symptoms and mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) history. RESEARCH DESIGN: Cross-sectional. METHODS AND PROCEDURES: Service members or Veterans (n = 107) within 2 years of blast exposure underwent structured interviews for mTBI, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and multiple mood and anxiety diagnoses. MAIN OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: MTBI history and active PTSD were both common, additionally 61% had at least one post-deployment mood or anxiety disorder episode. Psychiatric diagnoses had a high degree of comorbidity. Most dramatically, depression was 43-times (95% CI = 11-165) more likely if an individual had PTSD. PCS symptoms were greater in those with post-deployment PTSD or mood diagnosis. However, neither mTBI nor blast exposure history had an effect on the odds of having PTSD, mood or anxiety condition. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support that psychiatric conditions beyond PTSD are common after military combat deployment with blast exposure. They also highlight the non-specificity of post-concussion type symptoms. While some researchers have implicated mTBI history as a contributor to post-deployment mental health conditions, no clear association was found. This may partly be due to the more rigorous method of retrospective mTBI diagnosis determination.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source:
  • Release Date/Publication: December 01, 2015
  • Citation: Walker WC, Franke LM, McDonald SD, Sima AP, Keyser-Marcus L. Prevalence of mental health conditions after military blast exposure, their co-occurrence, and their relation to mild traumatic brain injury. Brain Inj. 2015 Dec;29(13-14):1581-8.

Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in a United States military health-care population.

Study

Abstract

Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is a rapidly emerging chronic immune-mediated condition affecting children and adults, both genders, and all races. A large variation in the prevalence of EoE exists in the literature. The aim of this study is to establish the prevalence of EoE in a military health-care population in the United States using a comprehensive electronic medical record search. Using the International Classification for Diseases-9 code for EoE (530.13), the total number of EoE patients enrolled in the military health-care system from October 1, 2008 to September 30, 2009 including active-duty military, dependents of military personnel, and retirees were identified. For each case of EoE identified, demographic data (age, gender, and race) and geographic location was obtained. The overall prevalence of EoE was calculated as well as the prevalence within subgroups. The geographic regional locations were reported per the U.S. Census Bureau regions (Northeast, South, Midwest, and West). A total of 987 EoE patients were identified from 10 180 515 military health-care beneficiaries, establishing an overall prevalence of 9.7 per 100 000 (95% confidence interval [CI] 9.1-10.3). Seven hundred twenty-eight out of 7 707 372 adult patients were identified, establishing a prevalence of 9.5 per 100 000 (95% CI 8.8-10.1). Two hundred fifty-nine out of 2 473 143 pediatric patients were identified, establishing a prevalence of 10.5/100 000 (95% CI 9.2-11.8). EoE was more prevalent in males (odds ratio [OR] 2.03 [95% CI 1.78-2.32]) and higher in Caucasian versus African Americans (18.1 vs. 5.2/100 000, OR 3.47 [95% CI 2.40-5.03]). EoE was more prevalent in the Western region of the United States compared with the Northeast, South, and Midwest regions, with a prevalence of 11.9 versuss 5.2, 9.6, and 9.2 per 100 000, respectively. When comparing Northern with Southern states, there was an increased prevalence in the North (10.9 vs. 7.2/100 000, P < 0.05). In this large nationwide study, increase in prevalence of EoE was seen in younger adults, with a higher prevalence in Caucasians. Geographically, the western United States had a significantly higher prevalence with a slightly higher prevalence in the Northern latitude.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Walter Reed National Military Medical Center/Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: May 01, 2014
  • Citation: Ally MR, Maydonovitch CL, Betteridge JD, Veerappan GR, Moawad FJ. Prevalence of eosinophilic esophagitis in a United States military health-care population. Dis Esophagus. 2014 May 15.

Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among new soldiers in the U.S. Army: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS).

Study

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of suicide among U.S. Army soldiers has risen dramatically in recent years. Prior studies suggest that most soldiers with suicidal behaviors (i.e., ideation, plans, and attempts) had first onsets prior to enlistment. However, those data are based on retrospective self-reports of soldiers later in their Army careers. Unbiased examination of this issue requires investigation of suicidality among new soldiers. METHOD: The New Soldier Study (NSS) of the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS) used fully structured self-administered measures to estimate preenlistment histories of suicide ideation, plans, and attempts among new soldiers reporting for Basic Combat Training in 2011-2012. Survival models examined sociodemographic correlates of each suicidal outcome. RESULTS: Lifetime prevalence estimates of preenlistment suicide ideation, plans, and attempts were 14.1, 2.3, and 1.9%, respectively. Most reported onsets of suicide plans and attempts (73.3-81.5%) occurred within the first year after onset of ideation. Odds of these lifetime suicidal behaviors among new soldiers were positively, but weakly associated with being female, unmarried, religion other than Protestant or Catholic, and a race/ethnicity other than non-Hispanic White, non-Hispanic Black, or Hispanic. CONCLUSIONS: Lifetime prevalence estimates of suicidal behaviors among new soldiers are consistent with retrospective reports of preenlistment prevalence obtained from soldiers later in their Army careers. Given that prior suicidal behaviors are among the strongest predictors of later suicides, consideration should be given to developing methods of obtaining valid reports of preenlistment suicidality from new soldiers to facilitate targeting of preventive interventions.

  • Publication Status: Published
  • Sponsoring Organization: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Sponsoring Office: Uniformed Services University of Health Sciences
  • Congressionally Mandated: No
  • Funding Source: Defense Health Agency (formerly TRICARE Management Activity)
  • Release Date/Publication: January 01, 2015
  • Citation: Ursano RJ, et al. Prevalence and correlates of suicidal behavior among new soldiers in the U.S. Army: results from the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS). Depress Anxiety. 2015 Jan;32(1):3-12.
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