Skip main navigation

Military Health System

Clear Your Browser Cache

This website has recently undergone changes. Users finding unexpected concerns may care to clear their browser's cache to ensure a seamless experience.

Surveillance Snapshot: Human Papillomavirus Vaccination Among U.S. Active Component Service Members in the Millennium Cohort Study, 2006–2017

Image of HPV virus. HPV virus

The U.S. Millennium Cohort Study is a population-based prospective study that includes over 200,000 current and prior U.S. military service members.1,2

The cohort includes 4 panels of participants, the first of which was enrolled in 2001; subsequent panels were enrolled in 2004, 2007, and 2011. Questionnaires were sent to participants every 3 years to collect information on service-related experiences as well as mental, physical, and behavioral health. As such, the Millennium Cohort Study is uniquely positioned to leverage both administrative and self-reported data to help understand the effects of military service on the health of its members.

The analysis was restricted to active component members under age 26 in 2006 (women) or 2009 (men). The primary outcomes were human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine initiation, completion (3 doses), and adherence (3 doses within 1 year). Medical encounter and central immunization databases were used to identify those who had received the HPV vaccine through June 2017. The analysis sample included 22,387 female and 31,705 male Millennium Cohort Study participants.

Overall, among service women in the analysis sample, 37.8% initiated the HPV vaccine and 40.2% of initiators were adherent (Figure 1). Among service men in the analysis sample, 3.9% initiated the vaccine and 23.1% of initiators were adherent (Figure 2). Compared to their respective counterparts, members of the Air Force and those in health care occupations had higher percentages of initiation and adherence. Initiation and adherence percentages were lower among self-reported ever smokers (cigarette) compared to never smokers. No differences were observed for other selected measures such as depression, panic or anxiety, or problem drinking (data not shown).

Author affiliations: Deployment Health Research Department in the Military Population Health Directorate, Naval Health Research Center, San Diego, CA (Dr. Matsuno, Dr. Porter, Mr. Warner, CDR Wells); Leidos, Inc., San Diego, CA (Dr. Matsuno, Dr. Porter, Mr. Warner)

Disclaimer: The authors are military service members or employees of the U.S. Government, or contract employees of the Government. This work was prepared as part of their official duties. Title 17, U.S.C. §105 provides that copyright protection under this title is not available for any work of the U.S. Government. Title 17, U.S.C. §101 defines a U.S. Government work as work prepared by a military service member or employee of the U.S. Government as part of that person’s official duties.

This work was supported by the Military Operational Medicine Research Program under work unit no. 60002. The views expressed in this article are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, or the U.S. Government.

The study protocol was approved by the Naval Health Research Center Institutional Review Board in compliance with all applicable Federal regulations governing the protection of human subjects. Research data were derived from an approved Naval Health Research Center, Institutional Review Board protocol number NHRC.2000.0007.

References

  1. Gray GC, Chesbrough KB, Ryan MA, et al. The Millennium Cohort Study: a 21-year prospective cohort study of 140,000 military personnel. Mil Med. 2002;167(6):483–488.
  2. Ryan MA, Smith TC, Smith B, et al. Millennium Cohort: enrollment begins a 21-year contribution to understanding the impact of military service. J Clin Epidemiol. 2007;60(2):181–191.

 

Percentages of all eligible service women (n=22,387) who initiated (n=8,453), completed (n=5,179), and adhered (n=3,400) to guidelines for HPV vaccination, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2006–2017

Percentages of all eligible service men (n=31,705) who initiated (n=1,231), completed (n=429), and adhered (n=272) to guidelines for HPV vaccination, active component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2009–2017

You also may be interested in...

Article
Feb 1, 2019

Outbreak of Acute Respiratory Illness Associated with Adenovirus Type 4 at the U.S. Naval Academy, 2016

Malaria case definition

Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are known to cause respiratory illness outbreaks at basic military training (BMT) sites. HAdV type-4 and -7 vaccines are routinely administered at enlisted BMT sites, but not at military academies. During Aug.–Sept. 2016, U.S. Naval Academy clinical staff noted an increase in students presenting with acute respiratory ...

Article
Feb 1, 2019

Update: Malaria, U.S. Armed Forces, 2018

Anopheles merus

Malaria infection remains an important health threat to U.S. service mem­bers who are located in endemic areas because of long-term duty assign­ments, participation in shorter-term contingency operations, or personal travel. In 2018, a total of 58 service members were diagnosed with or reported to have malaria. This represents a 65.7% increase from ...

Article
Dec 1, 2018

Incidence and Prevalence of the Metabolic Syndrome Using ICD-9 and ICD-10 Diagnostic Codes, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002–2017

This report uses ICD-9 and ICD-10 codes (277.7 and E88.81, respectively) for the metabolic syndrome (MetS) to summarize trends in the incidence and prevalence of this condition among active component members of the U.S. Armed Forces between 2002 and 2017. During this period, the crude overall incidence rate of MetS was 7.5 cases per 100,000 person ...

Article
Dec 1, 2018

Adrenal Gland Disorders, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2002–2017

During 2002–2017, the most common incident adrenal gland disorder among male and female service members was adrenal insufficiency and the least common was adrenomedullary hyperfunction. Adrenal insufficiency was diagnosed among 267 females (crude overall incidence rate: 8.2 cases per 100,000 person-years [p-yrs]) and 729 males (3.9 per 100,000 p-yrs). ...

Fact Sheet
Mar 30, 2017

Demographic and Military Traits of Service Members Diagnosed as Traumatic Brain Injury Cases

.PDF | 283.00 KB

This fact sheet provides details on the demographic and military traits of service members diagnosed as traumatic brain injury (TBI) cases during a 16-year surveillance period from 2001 through 2016, a total of 276,858 active component service members received first-time diagnoses of TBI - a structural alteration of the brain or physiological ...

Fact Sheet
Mar 30, 2017

Heat Illnesses by Location, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016 Fact Sheet

.PDF | 267.04 KB

This fact sheet provides details on heat illnesses by location during a five-year surveillance period from 2012 through 2016. 11,967 heat-related illnesses were diagnosed at more than 250 military installations and geographic locations worldwide. Three Army Installations accounted for close to one-third of all heat illnesses during the period.

Fact Sheet
Mar 30, 2017

Rhabdomyolysis by Location, Active Component, U.S. Armed Forces, 2012-2016 Fact Sheet

.PDF | 313.80 KB

This fact sheet provides details on Rhabdomyolysis by location for active component, U.S. Armed Forces during a five-year surveillance period from 2012 through 2016. The medical treatment facilities at nine installations diagnosed at least 50 cases each and, together approximately half (49.9%) of all diagnosed cases.

Skip subpage navigation
Refine your search
Last Updated: July 11, 2023
Follow us on Instagram Follow us on LinkedIn Follow us on Facebook Follow us on X Follow us on YouTube Sign up on GovDelivery