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Typhoid

Typhoid Vaccine Resource Center

Typhoid

Typhoid fever is a life-threatening illness caused by the bacterium Salmonella Typhi. An estimated 5,700 cases occur each year in the United States.  Most cases (up to 75%) are acquired while traveling internationally. Typhoid fever is still common in the developing world, where it affects about 21.5 million people each year.

Persons with typhoid fever usually have a sustained fever as high as 103° to 104° F (39° to 40° C). They may also feel weak, or have stomach pains, headache, or loss of appetite. In some cases, patients have a rash of flat, rose-colored spots. The only way to know for sure if an illness is typhoid fever is to have samples of stool or blood tested for the presence of Salmonella Typhi.

CDC recommends typhoid vaccine for travelers to areas where there is an increased risk of exposure to S. enterica serotype Typhi. Two typhoid vaccines are available in the United States:

  • Vi capsular polysaccharide vaccine (ViCPS) (Typhim Vi, manufactured by Sanofi Pasteur) for intramuscular use
  • Oral live attenuated vaccine (Vivotif, manufactured from the Ty21a strain of serotypeTyphi by PaxVax)

Both typhoid vaccines protect 50%–80% of recipients; travelers should be reminded that typhoid immunization is not 100% effective, and typhoid fever could still occur. Available typhoid vaccines offer no protection against paratyphoid fever.

Remember that you will need to complete your vaccination at least 1-2 weeks (dependent upon vaccine type) before you travel so that the vaccine has time to take effect. Typhoid vaccines lose effectiveness after several years; if you were vaccinated in the past, check with your doctor to see if it is time for a booster vaccination. Taking antibiotics will not prevent typhoid fever; they only help treat it.

Resource Center

You will find below all of the resources you will need about the typhoid vaccine. More will be added as they are published or released.

Information Paper Date
Typhoid Fever and Typhoid Vaccines
Aug. 16, 2017
Standing Orders Date
Typhoid Vaccine (Pediatric)
June 2022
Typhoid Vaccine (Adult)
June 2022
Vaccine Information Statements (VIS) Date
Typhoid Vaccines: What You Need to Know
Oct. 30, 2019
Manufacturer Package Inserts Date
Typhim Vi (injectable)
March 20, 2020
Vivotif (oral)
Sept. 1, 2013
Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) Recommendations Date
Typhoid Vaccine
March 27, 2015

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Last Updated: November 03, 2023
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